Sunday, February 16, 2020

GW F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche Essay

GW F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche - Essay Example rt of a great consciousness we would not be so concerned with our individual freedom therefore, we would agree to act rationally in a way that does not follow our individual caprice that would help us achieve our goals and objectives. Hegel argued that the concept of â€Å"Geist† involves subjective spirit/mind that is the individual potential force, while Objective Spirit/Mind is the force in action and Absolute Spirit/Mind is the goal, aim or target of the force as well as the realization of one’s target. Objective Spirit and Absolute Spirit/Mind have a continuous cycle between them such that: the goals established, understood and represented by the Absolute Spirit govern, lead and motivate the action and dynamic of people in the objective spirit. Absolute Spirit/Mind encourages people to reflect upon their own practice, learn from it and overcome any limitations. Schopenhauer asserted the principle of work by emphasizing that the will is the inner nature of the body as an appearance in time and space, he concluded that the inner reality of all material appearance is dependent on the individual will. Considering the notion of will as the key to existence, Schopenhauer, who is considered to be a pessimistic philosopher, explained that the tragedy of life arises from the nature of the will which constantly urges the individual toward the satisfaction of successive goals, none of the goals can provide permanent satisfaction for the infinite activity of the life force or will. Schopenhauer claimed that some things such as interests and moral life based on sympathy, alleviates the suffering that people’s experience in their lives. The only thing that stands in our power to achieve, is to use the personal qualities we possess in the most advantageous way as possible and follow such pursuits only when will call then to play (Hegel 46). Friedrich Nietzsche argues that, it is our freedom, ability to make and implement our own choices that distinguishes us from

Sunday, February 2, 2020

World religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

World religion - Essay Example This yoga holds very importance in both the religions. Tantrism is associated with the religious scriptures known as the Goddess Shakti. She is the sacred feminine in Hindu religion, whom people worship. Hindu considers it as anit-vedic in character. In Hinduism traditionally it contains four parts; Metaphysical knowledge of religion known as Jnana, meditative practices knows as yoga, ritual practices and religious and ethical practices of conduct named as Charya. Today in Hinduism this yoga traditionally exists in Saurya, Shiva, Shakta, Ganapatya and Vaishnava. Tantrism came into being in Buddhism around the 3rd century till 12th .In Buddhism, Tantric is also known as Vajrayana. It is different in Buddhism because of its rituals. Rather than the meditation their goal is to achieve the Godhead, with Upaya/skills.Vajrayanais difficult and complicated than the Hinduism because of its rules and complications in language, to read.It is performed in Buddhism for the followers to experienc e the true Buddha nature, before they tend to achieve the enlightenment(Dolls of India - The Role of Tantra in Hinduism and Buddhism) In the psychological study of religion, considering postmodernity, Erickson has given very much importance to the religion in every stage of life. He has done the biographies on Gandhi and Martin Luther, which have proved his thoughts in the matter of religion. Erick stated that for human personality development, religion plays an important role because it is only primary way where virtues are promoted with each stage of life, on the basis of culture. Erick’s theory couldn’t attain much benefit from systematic empirical study but it left the influential effect on the human minds(Schachter). Whereas considering the postmodernity Jones states that today the world is moving within the new sets of modernity. The thoughts of people are changing as a strong reflection of modern themes, specially the youth ministry. Jones says that youth ministry should

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Determinants of peoples attitudes towards immigration

Determinants of peoples attitudes towards immigration This paper analyzes the determinants of individual attitudes towards immigration within a group of students that study in UK. We consider three different types of components that influence each individual approach towards immigration. In the first scenario, we assumed that peoples attitudes toward immigration will be influenced by which political party they support. In the second scenario, we assumed that individuals who live in a city will have more positive attitudes towards immigrants than an individual who lives in a town, or a village. The third assumption was that individual which have been outside UK several times are more likely to form positive attitudes towards immigration, than people who have never been outside UK. What we found was that there was not a significant difference in attitudes toward immigration in all three components. Introduction The definition of attitudes is: Attitudes is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor (Eagly Chaiken, 1993, p1). The term is part of our commonsense language, and everyone understands and uses it to express attitude towards religion, racism, work, politics and many other things. Every day, each of us is exposed to countless stimuli which change and reinforce our attitudes. It is not coincidental, that Allport (1935) thought of attitudes as the most indispensable part of social psychology. A few psychologists even considered the whole psychology as scientific study of attitudes (Thomas Znaniecki, 1918). Attitudes toward immigration vary within every society and there are many factors that play a significant role to that. In a paper examining the growing restrictiveness of late 19th century immigration policy, Timmer and Williamson (1998) argued that economic factors were sufficient to explain the anti-immigration backlash that occurred in the major host countries of the New World at that time. They constructed an index of immigration barriers in the US, Canada, Argentina, Australia and Brazil from 1850 to 1930, based on a careful reading of each countrys immigration legislation. What they found was that the most consistently significant variable explaining the rise in immigration barriers was economic inequality. Rising equality encouraged more open immigration policies, while rising inequality encouraged more restrictive immigration policies. According to Mayda (2004), correlation between pro-immigration attitudes and individual skill, should be related to the skill of natives relative to immigrants in the destination country. Skilled individuals should favour immigration in countries where natives are more skilled than immigrants and oppose it otherwise. The results of her research support her hypothesis. Skilled individuals support immigration whether immigrants are skilled or not and oppose it if they are not skilled. In similar fashion Scheve and Slaughter (2001) conducted a survey to analyze the determinants of individual preferences over immigration in USA. What they found was that less-skilled workers were significantly more likely to prefer limiting immigrant inflows into the United States. Also, they found no evidence that the relationship between skills and immigration opinions is stronger in high-immigration communities. Hainmueller and Hiscox (2007) studied individual attitudes towards immigrants across Europe. What they found was that more educated people are significantly less racist and place greater value on cultural diversity than do their counterparts. They are also more likely to believe that immigration generates benefits for the host economy as a whole. On the contrary, the connection between the education or skill levels of individuals and views about immigration appears to have very little to do with fears about labour-market competition. They also found that a large component of the link between education and attitudes toward immigrants is driven by differences among individuals in cultural values and beliefs. Recent surveys conducted in UK show that two thirds of the people think that UK has immigration problem. The Guardian reports that the British are the only people in Western Europe who want immigration controls at the national rather than the European level, whilst they have little confidence in the UK authorities handling the issue. The poll suggests the British are more anti-immigrant and xenophobic than the rest of Western Europe, blaming immigrants for unemployment, and split over whether to grant them equal social benefits. Given the impact of the recession on employment in the west over the last year, in one of the polls was found that 54% of the people in UK agreed with the statement that the crisis meant that immigrants were taking jobs from the native-born. Also the British thought that immigrants depressed wage rates. Another interesting founding is that Britons wanted to deny legal immigrants equal social benefits, they favoured reinforcing border controls to combat illegal immigration, and they did not support legalising the status of illegal immigrants. This study focuses on students studying in UK. The study that was constructed focused in three primary areas. Firstly, it took into consideration the place that its individual lives or live. The hypothesis was that people that lived in cities would more likely have positive attitudes toward immigration, than people who live in villages and towns. Secondly, it was thought that the political views of the individual will have an impact in his/her attitude toward immigration. In this question, it was hypothesized that people that support the liberal democrat party will have more positive attitudes than people that support the labour or conservative party. Lastly, travelling outside UK was thought that it will have an impact on the individuals attitude toward immigration. In this question it was assumed that individuals that had travelled outside UK several times would have more positive attitudes toward immigration than those that did not. Method Materials The questionnaire consisted of four questions. The first question was what is the general attitude towards immigration? The answer was either positive or negative, and the participants had to tick one the boxes. The next question was which political party best encompasses your views? In this question there were three available answers and the participants had to tick one of the boxes. In this question we assumed that Liberal Democrats will have more positive attitudes toward immigration than the Labour and Conservative parties. Third question was how would you describe the place where you live? Again we have three available answers and participants have to tick on. In this question people that lived in a city would be more likely to have positive thoughts of immigration than people that live in towns and villages. Third question was how many countries have you visited outside UK? In this question we assumed that people who have travelled more abroad would have more positive attitudes towards immigration. Participants and Procedure Twenty undergraduate students at Swansea University took part in the questionnaire (14 female and 6 male) aged between 18 and 28. The participants were given a questionnaire to complete. It was emphasized to them that their results will be treated in the strictest confidence, and that they will not be divulged to anyone in a manner that would allow their identification. Also the participants were told that there is no right or wrong answer to any of the questions and they should give their immediate response to the individual items, rather than having a careful thought out and deliberate response. Results Using Rx C Chi Square Test of association we found that for the political views the critical value was .29. For the countries visited we also found that critical value was .29. Lastly, for the place that its individual lives, critical value was 3.07. Comparing it to the critical value of chi square=5.99 we can conclude that there is not significant difference in all the questions. Therefore, participants attitudes towards immigration were not significant, whether where they grew up, what political party they support and how many times they have travelled abroad. Discussion The results in this study were not significant to support our hypothesis. In all the questions the critical value was lower than the chi-squares critical value, but we have to take into consideration that there were three or more cells that had an expected frequency of less then three which could explain why none of the results were significant. Even though our hypothesis could not be supported while doing the chi-square test of association some of the results could be very useful. In the first question which was about the political party which each individual supports, from the 20 students that participated in the survey ten of them supported liberal democrats, and eight of them had positive attitudes towards immigration. Considering liberal democrats political views this result supports our hypothesis. In the second question where the participants had to describe the place they lived, we found that most of them lived in towns and village and only one in a city. Our hypothesis here was that people that lived in cities would probably have more positive attitudes about immigration since they would have to associate with more immigrants, and they would be more open minded, than they would if they lived in a village or a town. Since only one person lives in a city our hypothesis could not be argued. Nineteen of the participants live in villages and towns and most of them have positive attitudes toward immigration which does not support our assumption. Lastly, in the question of how many countries have they visited outside UK, we hypothesised that the individuals that had been outside UK several times would have more positive attitudes towards immigration than those that had never left the county. Seventeen of the participants had travelled more four times outside UK and twelve of them had positive attitudes toward immigration which supports our hypothesis. In future studies, to provide better results we should have each individual complete the questionnaire alone and not among other people. Some individuals might have given wrong replies because they would not want other people to think that they are racists. Another thing we should consider is where each individual lives. We could argue our hypothesis better if we had equal amount of people living in cities, towns and villages. The same could be said for people that have travelled abroad many times, a few times, or have not travelled at all. Lastly we should have equal amount of women and men to compare if gender plays a role in attitudes toward immigration.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Characteristic of partnership Essay

Identify and explain any FOUR (4) characteristics of a partnership. A partnership means a business is founded by two or more individuals, for example like small businesses which including retail or services business. There are certain characteristic for partnership, the first characteristic is partnership is limited life. Partnership may only established in certain year based on the partnership agreement. Partnership is easy to be terminate if one of the partner is death, bankruptcy or do not carry out certain responsibility if there is no such agreement is made. When a partner is being withdraws or added, the business should make a new partnership agreement if they wish to continue operate in partnership. This partnership’s business can be continue if with proper provisions and termination or withdrawal of partner in a partnership will not bring a big impact toward ongoing business operations. In a partnership, partners are agents, so that it is mutual agency. A partner may l egally bind to the partnership agreement that in line with the partnership’s operations. Before start a partnership, it is very important to know their potential partnerships is because most partnerships agreement create unlimited liability for its partners. A partner may limit another partner’s ability enter into contracts on the company’s behalf, however this limitation is only applies if the third party is aware of the limitation. It is their responsibility to inform third parties regarding the ability of their partner which is limited enter into contracts. Third, partnership is unlimited liability, this is because partners involved may use their personal assets to fulfill the partnership debts when the partnership cannot achieve its obligations. A partner may held individually for liable to the payment of creditor if another partner is insufficient assets to meet the share of the partnership’s debt. General partnership is mean a partnership which all of the partners are individually liable. There are two classes of partners in limited partnership, it is happened when investors do not want to risk their asset and do not actively involved in the business. A limited partnership must include at least one general partner who maintains unlimited liability. The liability of other partners is limited to the amount of their investments. Therefore, they are called limited partners. Besides that, partnership is ease of formation when compare to other business because it is less requirement to start up. It is also relative  lack of regulation due to govermental regulation. Reporting requirement are mainly in written form that cater for corporation. Although the number of sole proprietors and partnerships exceeds the number of corporations, the level of sales and profits generated by corporations are much greater. Decision making is tend to work well among partnership, if there is large number of partners that involved in business will make the decision making process become much more difficult.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The North American Free Trade Agreement - 1486 Words

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), an agreement signed by three countries in creating rules in trade in North America. NAFTA, when being presented, was described as genuine for helping Mexico and Canada. But was NAFTA really helpings those counties or really just helping North America? Initially North America was being genuine about NAFTA when talking to Mexico and Canada but in reality the NAFTA caused some uneven development as the years went by. I have two stories that remind me on NAFTA reasons being someone or myself acting genuine but trying to decide if the person is really being genuine or just trying to help its self, the way I feel North America was doing with the NAFTA. When I use to be a†¦show more content†¦When I was on the phones I would get all types of stories; such as, I lost my job, I don’t have any money and that wasn’t me, someone stole my card. Who do you believe? Who do you help and offer some type of settlement? Who actually can’t pay and deserves a break? When I was in training we had three weeks of intensive training on â€Å"Genuineness† and â€Å"Handling people’s emotions†. It can very difficult to distinguish those customers who are just trying to take advantage of the situation, the situation being the debt they are in, and leave with just a scratch. Like I have mentioned, I’ve heard all types of stories and I got good at identifying a liars. There were still some individuals who I just couldn’t tell if they were being genuine or telling me a story. Identifying genuine was a big must-have in this job because you really want to help those customers who re ally â€Å"just lost their jobs†. The customers who went on a shopping spree and spent money they didn’t have, which made them accumulate several fees, we want to shake them for every penny they got till the bank gets all the money back. One afternoon, after my break, I took a call and the person was being super genuine about her story but the transactions on her account told another story. The customer said she just lost her job and her son just stole her car

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Describe How Napoleon Became Dictator of Animal Farm and...

Napoleon was a pig in more than one sense. Words that you associate with pigs are not often pleasant. ‘Pig referring to one who is greedy and has more than their fair share; ‘pig headed refers to one who is extremely stubborn and thinks they are always right; ‘the pigs refer to police, or other figures of authority. Napoleon became dictator of Animal Farm merely due to the fact that he was a pig, and had the simplest of leadership skills. He maintained that power by propaganda and running the farm in a fascist, totalitarian manner. Violence, propaganda and the general ignorance of the other farm animals were major roles in keeping Napoleon in power. Power naturally fell to the pigs not because they had earned it, or were the best†¦show more content†¦Ã‚‘Â…you would not rob us of our repose, would you, comrades? You would not have us too tired to carry out our duties? Surely none of you wishes to see Jones back? (p.46). Much like Australias situation with boat people and declaring islands not part of Australia, so the refugees cant gain access to citizen rights, the Laws of Animalism changed with the Pigs will. Manipulation and twisting of words and laws meant that the Pigs were never in the wrong. ‘Squealer always spoke of it as a ‘readjustment, never as a ‘reduction. (p.75). Not only was propaganda used as a means to keep society repressed, but also violence and intimidation through subtle and constant threats ‘Surely you do not wish to see Jones back?, and fear of the repercussions if you were found to be betraying the revolution. Napoleon ran Animal Farm like any other dictator would, as a totali tarian state. It was manipulation, using others and his personal credibility that got Napoleon into his position as dictator of Animal Farm. Violence, propaganda, and the willingness of the other farm animals were major factors supporting his reign. Whilst ignorance at some point turned to stupidity, you cannot blame the other animals for wanting to turn a blind eye and go with popular public opinion, rather than voice their opinions and be killed for it. Lastly, it was Napoleons personalShow MoreRelatedInstitution as the Fundamental Cause of Long Tern Growth39832 Words   |  160 Pagesconstraints on economic actors, and shape economic outcomes. As such, they are social decisions, chosen for their consequences. Because different groups and individuals typically benefit from different economic institutions, there is generally a conflict over these social choices, ultimately resolved in favor of groups with greater political power. The distribution of political power in society is i n turn determined by political institutions and the distribution of resources. Political institutions allocateRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesdemarcate historical epochs, the twentieth century does not appear to be a very coherent unit. The beginnings and ends of what we choose to call centuries are almost invariably years of little significance. But there is little agreement over when the twentieth century c.e. arrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008)

Monday, December 23, 2019

The Search for Identity in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man...

The Search for Identity in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man It is through the prologue and epilogue, that we understand the deeper meanings of Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man. The prologue is essential, laying down a foundation that allows us to understand the meaning and reason behind the symbolism and relevance of events the that follow. The prologue allows us to understand the extent and level of intensity the novel is trying to achieve. Acting in the same way, the epilogue further illustrates the importance of different parts of the novel allowing us to truly see what the Invisible Man wants us to notice and take from the telling of his life. In the prologue the narrator introduces himself as the Invisible Man, simultaneously†¦show more content†¦His free electricity and rent-free existence prove the power of his invisibility. By not being visible the Invisible Man learns he does not have to live by the rules of visible people, showing us the deeper meaning of his invisibility. The narrator also reveals his current living situation in the prologue. He emphasizes the 1,369 lights he has in his abandoned basement; speaking metaphorically of how the light represents truth; more importantly the truth of his existence. He needs the light to confirm his own being, showing how the inability of society to see him affects him and makes the Invisible Man blind as well. This idea of how the blindness of the world causes him to be blind as well, is constantly referred to in the book, and it is only thought the prologue we understand the full meaning. The most important thing that we can take from the prologue is his symbolic ‘hibernation’, the Invisible Man’s life in his hole or basement. His hole represents imprisonment, for he feels he is held prisoner by his lack of identity and by the society that refuses to see him. Keeping this ending of his life in mind, we are able to look into the events in the book and see that they all lead to him trying to escape the hole by being noticed as a person in the world. Even the point of him writing and retelling his life is an escape route, giving him hard evidence that heShow MoreRelatedEssay on Search for Identity in Ralph Ellisons Invisible Man2669 Words   |  11 Pageshumanity and identity. Ralph Ellison, a prominent author fascinated by man’s search for identity, thought that blacks were invisible primarily because whites refused to see them. He believed that true identity could be revealed by experiencing certain endeavors and overcoming them (Parr an d Savery 86). Ellison explores this theme in Invisible Man, which depicts the title character struggling to find his identity despite facing obstacles created by both white men and his fellow blacks. 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In Shakespeare’s â€Å"Hamlet† and Ellison’s Invisible Man, the feminine character traits of the protagonists are alluded to as the cause of their failures, which supports the idea that the inward battle between masculinity and femininity exist as the characters journey closer to their identity. â€Å"It has been generally believed that males stand as opposed to females physically, intellectually, and emotionally. Man is supposed to be strong, courageousRead More The Distinguished Works of the Preeminent Black Author, Ralph Ellison2059 Words   |  9 PagesThe Distinguished Works of the Preeminent Black Author, Ralph Ellison Ralph Ellison is one of the most lauded yet misunderstood writers of the twentieth century. Ellison is considered a short-story writer and an essayist at heart, but his most distinguished work is the novel, Invisible Man. Ellison has been called everything from the greatest black American author (Brennan) to unnecessarily excessive in his writing style (Ralph Ellison: 1914-1994). For the most part, Ellison is held in